The brain has many ways to categorize and structure information. This demonstrates there is no one way for intelligence to operate. In fact this is verified many times. Octopus and dolphin brains are very different. Octopuses have no spine: the only hard part of their body is the beak they eat with. Yet both are very intelligent. Clearly there is more than one way to skin a cat, or create an intelligence being.
So intellience can be understood in many radically different ways. Different patterns can lead to intelligence if they encounter the right set of environmental stimuli. There is the true problem: how to set up the situation so that there is a maximum in-flow of intelligence.
First stick with things that are known to produce intelligence. Organized schools are less efficient than books and conversations. Allowing more interaction with the environment always increases intelligence.
To get intelligence you have to actually poke the world and see what happens. A mathematical algorithm that is not playing with reality will suffer from learning disabilities.
Real animals learn by interacting and participating in the world. That is how you really learn. It’s through effort, not intellectual games. People can convince themselves of anything, no matter how smart they are. Rapidly testing and improving ideas is how we get better. That depends on the methods, and the methods are varied.